Thursday, July 11, 2019

Alcoholic Fermentation

What Is Alcohol Fermentation?

Bread, beer, and Bordeaux: most of us love some or all of these! But they would not exist if not for yeast, a eukaryotic microorganism that can metabolize sugars anaerobically through a pathway called alcohol fermentation. Humans have been using yeasts to make these products for thousands of years, but only learned of their existence in the last two hundred years. How exactly do these tiny creatures make these delicious food and drink items?

Alcohol fermentation, also known as ethanol fermentation, is the anaerobic pathway carried out by yeasts in which simple sugars are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Yeasts typically function under aerobic conditions, or in the presence of oxygen, but are also capable of functioning under anaerobic conditions, or in the absence of oxygen. When no oxygen is readily available, alcohol fermentation occurs in the cytosol of yeast cells. Let's explore the process of alcohol fermentation then see what it means for yeasts and for humans.
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The Process of Alcohol Fermentation

The basic equation for alcohol fermentation shows that yeast starts with glucose, a type of sugar, and finishes with carbon dioxide and ethanol. However, to better understand the process, we need to take a look at some of the steps that take us from glucose to the final products.

The process of alcohol fermentation can be divided into two parts. In the first part, the yeast breaks down glucose to form 2 pyruvate molecules. This part is known as glycolysis. In the second part, the 2 pyruvate molecules are converted into 2 carbon dioxide molecules and 2 molecules of ethanol, otherwise known as alcohol. This second part is called fermentation.

The main purpose of alcohol fermentation is to produce ATP, the energy currency for cells, under anaerobic conditions. So from the yeast's perspective, the carbon dioxide and ethanol are waste products. That's the basic overview of alcohol fermentation. Now, let's examine each part of this process in greater detail.

alcohol fermentation pathway yeasts
In the first part of this process, each glucose molecule is broken down into 2 pyruvate molecules. Pyruvate, or pyruvic acid, is an amino acid and will help form ethanol. In the process of breaking glucose down to form pyruvate, several molecules known as electron acceptors are involved.

Electron acceptors are molecules whose job is to give and take the electrons released when a chemical reaction takes place. During this first part, an electron acceptor molecule called NAD+ is reduced to form NADH, gathering up the electrons released by breaking one glucose down to 2 pyruvate molecules. This exchange of electrons that occurs while glucose is being broken down is essentially what helps build ATP.

The conversion of glucose to pyruvate creates a net total of 2 ATP. While this isn't as much ATP as aerobic respiration can produce, it's enough to keep the yeast alive until oxygen is available. This first part may look familiar because it's essentially glycolysis, or the first stage of aerobic respiration.

If oxygen were present, then the pyruvate molecules would enter a mitochondrion to undergo the remainder of aerobic respiration. However, in alcohol fermentation, the pyruvate instead stays in the cytosol, the gooey interior space of the cell. This is where the second part of our reaction, the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol, will take place.

Before pyruvate can be converted to ethanol, it is first converted into an intermediary molecule called acetaldehyde. This releases carbon dioxide. Next, acetaldehyde is converted into ethanol. Key enzymes aid in the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethanol, including the zymases.

Alcoholic Beverages are portable liquid which contain 1% to 75% AVB of liquor. They are produced by the introduction of yeast for fermentation.

Yeast is added into substance such as Grapes, Grains, Barley, Fruits, Sugarcane and Rice and then distilled. The Alcohol content is measure as 'Alcohol by Volume' which is abbreviated as 'ABV'.

Different Methods by which Alcohol is prepared
Fermented beverages (9%–16% ABV)

Fermented beverages, as its name suggests are those type of alcohol which is prepared with a fermentation process. During this process the sugar is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide with the help of yeasts. Some examples of fermented beverages are Beer, Champagne, Wine etc.

Distilled beverages (17%-75% ABV)

Distilled beverages are also called  as spirits. These type of alcohol is produced by the distillation process where a juice or other liquids which is already fermented is evaporated by boiling and then collected via process called condensation. There are a large variety of liquor produced with this process like Whiskey, Brandy, Gin, Vodka, Tequila, Rum etc.

Fortified drinks (Upto 20% ABV)

Fortified drinks are those who have been fermented, distilled and then finally be "fortified" to increase its alcohol content by adding additional alcohol. This is done to achieve a balance in flavor and liquor content. Some examples of fortified drinks are port wine, madeira, chamomile etc.

Liqueurs or creams (15–30% ABV)

These are alcoholic beverages which is made from distilled spirits, which is then flavored with cream, spices, nuts, herbs, coffee, chocolate etc. Some examples are Sheridan's Coffee Liqueur, Baileys Irish Cream Liqueur, Amarula Fruit Cream Liqueur etc.

Types of Alcoholic Beverages

   Type Made From

Wednesday, July 10, 2019

Alcoholic Drinks

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain the chemical compound of ethyl alcohol (chemical formula of C2H5OH) or ethanol, a colorless and flammable liquid. Alcohol is found in any fermented liquor, and it is the ingredient that produces intoxication.

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Alcohol consumed in small amounts functions as a stimulant; however, it is classified as a depressant or a drug that slows down the brain. It is also classified as a psychoactive substance in that it can alter mood and consciousness, leading to intoxication. Alcoholic beverages, like all psychoactive substances, affect brain functions. Higher brain functions such as the ability to reason, problem-solve and control social inhibitions are affected first. If the person keeps drinking, he or she will become less alert, sleepy and lose muscular coordination. Signs of alcoholic intoxication are slurred or rambling speech, difficulty remembering, staggering or unsteady walk, inability to drive or perform other mechanical tasks, lack of coordination and personality changes. Some people become belligerent and argumentative, others become overly friendly and silly when intoxicated. People can die from alcohol poisoning, which is the consumption of too many drinks too quickly.

Intoxication or drunkenness has a legal definition in most states that is based on the level of alcohol in the bloodstream, usually 0.08%. In some countries, that standard is as low as 0.02%.

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Alcoholic beverages are made by allowing the sugars in grains, fruits, honey and others to undergo fermentation or decomposition. There are  three basic kinds of alcoholic beverages: wine, beer and hard liquor.

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