Hot Drinks- tea and coffee are the two most popular drinks in India. Teas being the national drink and coffee the second most popular drink in India, more so in South India.
•    Cold Drinks- Lassi is the most popular drink in India. It can be served sweet or salted with lots of ice and is very refreshing during summer. Iced tea and cold coffee are also gaining popularity in India. Nimbupani is also very popular and can be served sweet or salted and at times water is replaced with carbonated water (fresh lime soda- sweet or salted). Jeerapani or jaljeera is another favourite among the Indians which is a remarkable digestive.

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Juices- Juices are the liquid extract of fruits and vegetables, served either fresh or canned.
Juices are served with ice or without ice in a paris goblet/highball/tomcollins. The prepoured glass is brought from the dispense bar/still room to the table and placed on a coaster from the right-hand side of the guest. Straw holder may be placed on the table.
•    Soft drinks- This includes the vast no. of carbonated drinks or aerated drinks available in the market. Example being colas, lemonades, orangeales etc. Hotel bars are also stacked with squashes (sweetened or unsweetened fruit base concentrate) of different flavours which also fall under this category.


•    Stimulating drink/beverage- these are consumed to stimulate our mental and physical activities. Ex. Tea and coffee 
•    Refreshing drink/beverage- These are drinks which are taken to make up for the fluid loss (due to perspiration) of our body. Ex. Nimbupani, water, syrups, soft drinks, tonic water, aerated drinks, squashes, etc.
Aerated drinks- these are beverages that are infused with carbonic gases making the drink fizzy when opened. These beverages are available in different flavours such as lemon, orange, cola, etc. and are available in bottles and cans. Some examples for this category are-soda, pepsi, cocacola.
Squashes- squashes are concentrated pulp of fruits and are available in bottles. Orange squash, pineapple squash, lemon squash, and mango squash are some examples. These are diluted with the addition of chilled water, mineral water. They are used extensively in making cocktails and mocktails.
Service of squashes
While taking order of squash, guest’s preference of mix should be noted. For example, a guest may prefer orange squash with soda.
Items to be carried to the table on a salver lined with tray cloth are-
Measured quantity of required squash in 12 oz beer goblet/highball/tomcollins
Ice buckets with tongs
Jug of chilled water/soda siphon/chilled mineral water according to guest’s preference
Drinking straw

Place straw holder on the table and coaster on centre of cover or on the right hand side of the guest.
Place glass with squash on the coaster.
Ask guest if he/she wishes to have ice. If yes, place ice bucket next to the glass and add ice.
Top it with soda/chilled water/ mineral water according to his order.
Take away the ice bucket.
(If squash is preferred with soda or mineral water, soda siphon and mineral water bottle should be left on the table. Water jug may be taken back to the sideboard.)
Syrups-syrups are fruit flavoured concentrated sweet liquid. They are used in the preparation of cocktails, milk shakes, and long drinks. They can be mixed with soda water and served.

   Nourishing drink/ beverage- Beverage consumed to provide nutrients to the body. Ex. Milk based products like milk shake, chocolate drinks, juices etc.

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1) Aerated water
These beverages are aerated with carbon dioxide, hence the fizzy or bubbly nature of these drinks. Mostly these waters are flavored with artificial / natural ingredients and essences. 
Some examples:
Soda water - colorless & tasteless. Example- Schweppes, Lehar everness
Tonic water- colorless & flavored with quinine. Eg- Schweppes, rose & thistle
Dry ginger- golden straw colored with a ginger flavor
Bitter lemon- pale cloudy with sharp lemon flavor
Orangeades- orange colored with orange flavor, eg mirinda, fanta
Lemonades- 2 varieties- clear n whitish opaque, eg limca, 7 up
Colas- dark, rich, garnet red colored when held up to the light. Flavored with the essence or extract of cola nuts

of cola nuts.
2)    Natural spring water or mineral waters-
These waters are broadly classified as bottle drinking waters. However these are not to be confused with packaged drinking water, which is essentially hygienically filtered and purified water packaged in disposable bottles/ packs/ pouches.
Mineral waters have a strictly controlled mineral content while spring waters have lesser regulations except those concerning hygiene and purification. Both minerals as well as spring waters can be still, naturally Natural spring waters are obtained from natural springs in the ground, the water itself being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometimes naturally charged with an aerating gas.
Diff mineral waters

Minerals water can be classified as follows:
Alkaline waters- These are the most numerous of all mineral waters. They are considered to be useful for treatments against rheumatism. Some eg are Evian, Perrier, Vichy, and Malvern
Aperient waters- These have saline constituents, mainly sulphates of magnesium and sodium. Eg Cheltenham, Montmirail, Leamington spa
Chalybeate waters- These waters act as stimulants and are either carbonated or sulphated. Eg, Vittel, Passy
Lithiated waters- these are rich in Lithia salts. Eg, Baden Baden, Carlsbad
Sulphurous waters- Water impregnated with hydrogen. Eg challes, Harrogate


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HISTORY: Tea was discovered by accident over 5000 years when leaves from a tea bush accidently dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavoured the drink. Tea was originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the 1700’s that it began to be consumed as the delicious beverage that we know today.
What is tea?
 Tea is prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called Camellia sinesis. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage containing approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids muscle relaxation and stimulates the central nervous system. 

 Tea is grown in more than 25 countries around the world. The crop benefits from acidic soil and warm climate and where there is at least 130cm of rain a year. It is an annual crop and its flavour, quality and character is affected by the location, altitude, type of soil and the climate.
The main tea producing countries are-
•    India- largest producer
•    China
•    Sri lanka
•    East Africa( Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania)
•    Indonesia
Depending on the type of function, clientele, method of service, type of establishment, storage facilities and cost, tea may be purchased in a variety of ways-
1.    Bulk
2.    Tea bags
3.    String and tag
4.    Envelopes
5.    Instant


The word blend indicates that a named tea in the market is up for sale may be composed for a variety of tea to produce one marketable product acceptable to the average consumer’s palate, for ex. a standard tea may be a blend of Indian Tea for strength, African tea for colour and Chinese tea for flavour and delicacy.


•    Tea should be stored in the following manner
•    In a dry, cleaned and covered container
•    In a well-ventilated area
•    Away from excess moisture
•    Must not be kept near any strong smelling food as tea absorbs odour very quickly

           MAKING OF TEA

Tea is an infusion and thus maximum flavour is required from the brew. Few rules to be followed are-
1.    Ensure all equipments used are clean
2.    Heat the tea pot before putting in the dry tea so that the maximum heat can be obtained from the brew
3.    Measure the dry tea and freshly drawn cold water exactly
4.    Use freshly boiled water
5.    Make sure that the water is boiling on entering the pot
6.    Allow it to brew for 3-4 minutes, to obtain maximum strength from the brew
7.    Remove the tea leaves at the end of this period if making if making in multi pot insulated urns

          TYPES OF TEA

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1.    Black tea- soon after plucking, leaves are subjected to the withering process. The leaves are spread on a perforated rack under the sun till their moisture content reaches 50%. During monsoon, hot air may be used to wither the leaves. The next step is bruising the leaves gently either by tossing them in a basket or gently crushing so as to tear the leaves slightly. The chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are released. The leaves rapidly turn black at this stage because of oxidation, i.e. due to contact with air. This is known as fermentation in the tea industry despite the fact that no action of yeast or microbes takes place. Finally the leaves are heated to stop the process of oxidation at a predetermined stage to reduce the moisture content to 3% and below. This result in black tea which is then packed and marketed.
2.    Green tea- it is obtained when leaves are withered, steamed, dried, rolled, and packed. This tea Is not subjected to fermentation. All tea producing countries make green tea. It is considered to be the best tea for health.
3.    Oolong tea- it is made by withering leaves, tossing them in basket to get little bruises, oxidizing partially, baking, rolling, drying and finally fruing.

Steps in tea processing

Black tea
Fresh tea leaves-sorting and cleaning-withering-cutting/rolling-full fermentation-drying
Green tea-
Fresh tea leaves-sorting and cleaning-withering-steaming/panfrying-drying. rolling, and shaping.
Oolong tea
Fresh tea leaves-sorting and cleaning-withering-bruising leaf edges-short fermentation-pan frying- drying.

The manufacturing process

Black tea goes though four main steps of manufacture:
The objective of withering is to reduce the moisture content in the tea leaf. The plucked leaves are laid out in troughs where air is passed through the tea, removing the moisture. This can take up to 17 hours and by the end of the process the leaves have a wilted appearance.
There are two types of rolling:
Orthodox  Where the leaves are rolled between rollers until gently broken.
CTC (Cut, Tear, Curl)  Where a machine cuts and tears the leaves into smaller pieces. 
The purpose of this process is to break the leaves so the enzymes are released and the third step of oxidation begins.
The broken leaves are laid out to oxidise or ferment. This part of the process is very important as this will significantly impact the overall taste and quality of the tea. This can take up to two hours.
To stop the oxidation process, the tea leaves are heated. The dried tea is now ready to be sorted into grades before packing. 


assam tea

darjeeling tea

dragonwell tea

jasmine tea

macha tea

nilgiri tea

sencha tea


Assam Tea- it is rich and has full malty flavour. Suitable for service at breakfast and is served with milk
Darjeeling Tea- a delicate tea with grape flavour and known as the ‘Champagne of teas’. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or little milk if preferred.
Earl grey Tea- a blend of Darjeeling and china tea, flavoured with oil of bergamot. Usually served with lemon or milk.
Jasmine- A green tea which is dried with jasmine. It blossoms and produces a tea which has a scented flavour.
Kenya tea- this tea is referred to as” refreshing tea”. It is served with milk.
Lapsangsauchang- It is smoky, pungent, perfumed tea. It is delicate to the palate and is said to have acquired taste and is served with lemon.
Tisanes- It is a fruit flavoured tea and has herbal infusions. It is used for medicinal purposes and is gaining popularity since the trend is towards healthy eating and drinking. Often these so not contain caffeine.
Srilanka makes a pale golden tea with good flavour. Ceylon blend is still used as a trade name, served with lemon and milk.
CTC- Machinery processed tea, usually from Assam, Sri Lanka and parts of Africa and South America. The processing has three stages (crush, tear, curl or cut, tear, curl), hence the name “CTC” tea. The resultant product looks like small pellets of (usually black) tea. It produces a very strongly flavored, quickly infusing tea that is often used in teabags.


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It is naturally grown in many countries of the tropical and sub-tropical belt in South and Central America and Asia. It grows in different altitude in different climate and in different soil and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world.
Brazil is the largest producer of coffee in the world, Columbia is second, The Ivory Coast third and Indonesia fourth.
History of coffee
There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1000 years ago in Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been Yemen district of Arabia in the 15thcentury.The first coffee house was opened in England in Oxford in 1650.
Coffee plant
The coffee trees are the genus coffea which belongs to the Rubiacea family. The coffee plant is an evergreen plant or a bush which is grown commercially in tropical climate throughout the world. It requires not only a hot climate but also a high rainfall, a rich soil and a relatively high altitude. The coffee plant is unable to survive wide variation of temperature or any other condition.

coffee seed

types of coffee plants are

1. Coffea Arabica- it is one of the best quality coffees. Its beans are uniform, bold, regular sized and have good flavor. It is grown in india, brazil, Colombia, coata rica, Kenya and Jamaica.
2. Coffea Canephora-(coffee robusta) it is the second best type of coffee. The beans from the plant are usually smaller of a lower quality with neutral flavor. It gives higher yield than Arabica. It is grown in east and west Africa.
3. Coffea Liberica- produces third main type of coffee. The beans are arge in size but lack in quality. It is grown in Malaysia and Guyana.

Processing of coffee-

 there are two types of coffee processing depending on the country in which processing is carried out, those countries which has abundant water uses wet method of processing coffee beans and those who have scarcity of water uses dry method of coffee processing.
Wet method of coffee processing

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